China's last imperial family, the Qing Dynasty, was ethnically-Manchu rather than Han Chinese. This proved a problem in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when anti-foreigner sentiment in China encompassed not only the invading British, French, German, American and Japanese traders and missionaries, but also the Qing emperors themselves.
The dynasty emerged in northern China in 1616, but did not take control of all of China proper until 1644.
This list shows the birth names first and then the imperial names, where applicable.
- Nurhaci, 1616-1636
- Huang Taiji, 1626-1643
- Dorgon, 1643-1650
- Fulin, the Shunzhi Emperor, 1650-1661
- Xuanye, the Kangxi Emperor, 1661-1722
- Yinzhen, the Yongzheng Emperor, 1722-1735
- Hongli, the Qianlong Emperor, 1735-1796
- Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor, 1796-1820
- Minning, the Daoguang Emperor, 1820-1850
- Yizhu, the Xianfeng Emperor, 1850-1861
- Zaichun, the Tongzhi Emperor, 1861-1875
- Zaitian, the Guangxu Emperor, 1875-1908
- Puyi, the Xuantong Emperor, 1908-1911
For more information, see the List of Chinese Dynasties.