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Central Asia Timeline

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Timeline of Central Asian history from the Aryan invasion through the fall of the Soviet Union.

Ancient Central Asia: 1500-200 B.C.

via Wikipedia
Aryan invasion, Cimmerians invade Russia, Scythians invade Russia, Darius the Great, Persians conquer Afghanistan, Alexander the Great, Conquest of Samarkand, Bactrian Greeks in Afghanistan, Parthians capture Soghdiana, Emergence of Huns

Turkic-Dominated Central Asia: 200 B.C. - 600 A.D.

Alan Cordova on Flickr.com
Chinese Embassy to Ferghana Valley, Diplomatic Ties between China and Persians, Chinese capture Kokand, Kushan Empire, Sassanians overthrow Parthian, Huns invade Central Asia, Sogdian Empire, Turks invade Caucasus

Clash of Empires in Central Asia: 600-900 A.D.

Kiwi Mikex on Flickr.com
Chinese Occupation of Mongolia and Tarim Basin, Arabs defeat Sassanians, Umayyad Caliphate established, Chinese expelled from Mongolia, Arabs capture Central Asian oasis cities, Chinese invade Ferghana Valley, Battle of Talas River between Arabs and Chinese, Kirghiz/Uighur strife, Uighurs move to Tarim Basin, Samanids defeat Saffarids in Persia

Early Medieval Era, the Turks and Mongols: 900-1300 A.D.

via Wikipedia
Qarakhanid Dynasty, Ghaznavid Dynasty, Seljuk Turks defeat Ghaznavids, Seljuks capture Baghdad and Anatolia, Genghis Khan conquers Central Asia, Mongols conquer Russia, Kyrgyz leave Siberia for Tien Shan Mountains

Tamerlane and the Timurids: 1300-1510 A.D.

via Wikipedia
Timur (Tamerlane) conquers Central Asia, Timurid Empire, Ottoman Turks take Constantinople, Ivan III expels Mongols, Babur captures Samarkand, Shaybanids take Samarkand, Mongolian Golden Horde collapses, Babur takes Kabul, Uzbeks capture Bukhara and Herat

Rise of Russia: 1510-1800 A.D.

via Wikipedia
Ottoman Turks defeat Mamlukes and capture Egypt, Babur captures Kandahar and Delhi, Moghul Empire, Ivan the Terrible defeats Kazan and Astrakan, Tatars sack Moscow, Peter the Great invades Kazakh lands, Afghans depose Persian Safavids, Durrani Dynasty, Chinese conquer Uighurs, Uzbek khanate established

Nineteenth Century Central Asia: 1800-1900 A.D.

Travelling Runes on Flickr.com
Barakzai Dynasty, Kazakhs revolt, First Anglo-Afghan War, Stoddart and Conolly executed by Emir of Bukhara, Crimean War, Russians capture oasis cities, Second Anglo-Afghan War, Geok-tepe Massacre, Russians conquer Merv, Andijan uprising

Early 20th Century Central Asia: 1900-1925 A.D.

Vagamundos on Flickr.com
Russian Revolution, Fall of Qing China, October Revolution, Soviets capture Kyrgyz, Third Anglo-Afghan War, Basmachi Revolt, Soviets retake Central Asian capitals, Death of Enver Pasha, Ataturk proclaims Republic of Turkey, Stalin draws Central Asian borders

Mid 20th Century Central Asia: 1925-1980 A.D.

babeltravel on Flickr.com
Soviet anti-Muslim campaign, Forced settlement/collectivization, Xinjiang revolt, Cyrillic script imposed on Central Asia, Coups in Afghanistan, Iranian Islamic Revolution, Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Modern Central Asia: 1980-present

Natalie Behring-Chisholm / Getty Images
Iran/Iraq War, Soviet retreat from Afghanistan, Central Asian Republics established, Tajik Civil War, Rise of the Taliban, 9/11 attacks on U.S., U.S./UN Invasion of Afghanistan, Free Elections, Death of Turkmenistan's President Niyazov

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